How Did People Use To Listen To Music?


Music is one of the oldest forms of arts that has pleased tens of millions of people throughout the years. In ancient times, the harp was considered the instrument of angels, while, in the Medieval Ages, the mandolin was the choice of minstrels. Back in the days, there weren’t any recording systems and technologies, so all the music played was live.

However, thanks to the industrial revolution at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, technologies developed massively, allowing us to listen to recorded music. Here is how we used to listen to music not so long ago.


A stroll in the past

It wasn’t until the late 19th century that the first device to record and play music on was invented. More accurately put, the brilliant Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1877, even though the sound quality was low and each recording only lasted for one play.

Soon after, the gramophone came along. It is credited as the first recording system that used flat disks or records and remained the instrument of choice in many houses throughout the 20th century. However, since it wasn’t powered by electricity, you had to wind it up in order to use it.

The graphophone represents another invention that used to record music with the help of glass records. It was only after some time that this instrument and its accessories evolved so that records were manufactured out of plastic in order to be mass produced. This leads us to vinyl records which became extremely popular in the 20th century and can even be used nowadays.

Cassette tapes

Cassettes increased in popularity in the 1970s and were widely used to both listen to music and record it. They contained a magnetic tape. After one side was done, you had to flip it over to listen to the other part of the tape. Throughout the 1980s until the beginning of the 1990s, mixtapes were listened on the highly popular Sony Walkman, the first personal cassette player.

If you are feeling nostalgic, you can still look for the best boombox on the market and play your mixtape in your personal interpretation of the famous “Say Anything…” scene to declare eternal love to your significant other.



Around the same time, in the mid-1990s, CDs appeared on the market and proved to become the best new gadget for listening to music, watching videos, or playing games. CD players even managed to beat the former boomboxes in popularity as they allowed you to skip directly to the track you wanted to listen to, without having to flip sides or push the fast/forward button.

CDs remained popular throughout the 1990s and at the beginning of the 2000s, until they were replaced by MP3 players, notorious iPod Shuffles, and, most recently, smartphones and tablets.  

Interesting facts about arranging your short hair

It is known that short hair restrict experiment in looks and allow very little room for styling. But that is not true, at least not in today’s world where you have a plethora of tools and gadgets to shape and set hair in whatever way you want. There are several awesome gigs that you can do with your hairs, with the right tools in your hand. One such hair styling accessory is the flat iron.

Different types and lengths of hairs require different kinds of flat irons. Sometimes, the best flat iron may not be as good for short hairs as those rated below them might be.

While choosing a flat iron for short hair type, you must look for the gadget which is small in size and sleek in shape. It must have minimal housing and should be easily held in hand. The bottom-line is that you must be comfortable and feel convenient while you work on your cropped hair. Narrow plates are helpful in getting through the short strands. They will allow thorough application throughout the roots and work efficiently.


The size of the iron may also vary according to your hair texture. If you have short and straight hairs then the appropriate size can be 1 to 1.5 inches, but if your hairs are short and coarse/curly then the size must not go down from 1.5 inches.

Go for a lightweight unit because for short hair you will require to hold the tool above your head the entire duration of styling. Hence a lightweight flat iron is suggested for short hair types.

Choose a Tourmaline surfaced flat iron because while working on short hairs the tool will be held close to the hair roots and scalp for a very long duration and tourmaline heating will prevent the damage due to this prolonged exposure to heat.

Here is list of some of the most reliable and popular flat irons for short hair

  • CHI Air Style Series Tourmaline Ceramic Flat Iron: Good for normal and straight hairs. It is lightweight and only an inch broad to provide precise styling from tip to root.
  • Babyliss Pro porcelain Ceramic Flat Iron: This 1.5 inch broad straightener is great for coarse/thick/curly short hair type.
  • Elchim Ceramic Flat Iron: Another not so popular yet counts for reliability; this 1 inch broad straightener is a prudent investment for short hair.

Who is Patrick Devedjian?


Patrick Devedjian is a French politician, of Armenian descent, who is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement party, who rose to fame as a friend and adviser of the French President Nicolas Sarkozy. He was also a Minister, put in charge of the Recovery Plan, after the global financial crisis hit the world, and especially Europe, in late 2008.

His grandfather was a renowned Ottoman zoologist and political man, and his Sivas born father arrived in France while fledging the Armenian Genocide, which is still to this day one of the darkest times in the country’s history. In his early life, he has studied all across France, and in 1970 he was admitted to the Paris Bar. In 1976, he and his close friends laid the foundations of the Rally for the Republic party.

It didn’t take too long for the politician to make his views heard by the people around him, and thus he was elected as the Mayor of Antony, from 1983 to 2002, proving the right skills of a good leader. He was, sadly, one of the few people in RPR that during 1992 supported the Maastricht Treaty, a historical event which led to the formation of the European Union.

He was also one of the close advisors of Édouard Balladur during his presidential campaign in 1995. Unfortunately, he was defeated by Jacques Chirac. But one good outcome from this process was the fact that he was introduced to Nicolas Sarkozy, whom he later helped with his own election.

In 2002, Jacques Chirac was reelected, and Sarkozy was promoted as Minister of the Interior, and later Minister of the Economy and Finance, while Patrick Devedjian became Deputy Minister for Industry.

After 2006, Nicolas Sarkozy resigned from his position in the Government to become President of the Union for a Popular Movement party. Patrick Devedjian quickly followed his friend and later became his main political advisor. But tension soon followed after Nicolas Sarkozy was elected president because Devedjian wanted to become Minister of Justice, but the President denied him that by appointing someone else instead.

From late December 2008 to early November 2010, Devedjian was appointed as a Minister, and he was in command of the implementation of the Recovery Plan, a special ministerial project created in the two years that followed the global financial crisis of 2008. He soon retired and left the UMP leadership to Xavier Bertrand.

He is an impressive man who has left a mark on the modern history of France. And he didn’t shy away from controversy. He was recorded calling one of his colleges, Anne-Marie Comparini, “that bitch!” a thing for which he apologized repeatedly. But that moment left a spot on his clean public image, and it hunts him even to this day.


How to learn French easily and effectively


People say that French is the language of love, but learning it is not a lovely task. It is a beautiful language, but, at the same time, it is complicated to conquer if you don’t start with the right weapons. If you want to do it the right way, this article has many pro tips and tricks that could aid this possibly tedious process.

My biggest tip, one that I’ve learned the hard way, is always to study the language with audio support. French is written entirely different from how it is spoken, as you might suspect. That’s why it is imperative that you combine grammar and vocabulary with audio books like Pimsleur.



You will memorize words faster, and you can become proficient in no time. If you only study the written language, you will just be able to read and write it, and not speak it, which, in my opinion, is more important if you want to interact with locals. It is also the best time to ask yourself why you want to learn this beautiful mystery.

Another trick is always to use the words you learn. This means that you have to actively use the built vocabulary on a daily basis. Think in the language you are studying, even if you only know a handful of sentences.

Moreover, you can use sticky notes to aid this process. Choose an object in your house, write the word in French on the sign, and then stick it on the object. This way, every time you look at the nominated thing, you will associate it with the word in French.

The best trick I can give you is to use apps that incorporate images into their teaching process. My favorites are Duolingo and Memrise since they are free and because the courses are created by native speakers, meaning you get a feel for the real spoken language.

These apps do not rely on grammar, but rather on intuition – they teach French like French kids learn the language, which is fast, fun and reliable.

Establishing a learning routine is vital to learning any language. It’s a common practice among language lovers for a good reason. It will help you not to give up when times get hard, and a routine will motivate you to learn at your own pace. In a way, I think this is the key to mastering French in a short time.

To conclude, studying the language’s grammar and vocabulary can be a burden. However, with the right tools, it can be fun and easy. The last trick is to take advantage of what the Internet offers. Go to Youtube for free lessons, check for language clubs and install hundreds of apps that will prove themselves to be of great value if you have to speak French on your own.


Is ‘The Last Jedi’ the most intellectual Star Wars movie?

Movies are an excellent opportunity to imagine stories and scenarios and let our imagination fly. Whenever people go to the cinema they expect a movie that will make them feel better or at least dream about how would their life be if they had made other choices. It’s interesting how, even though modern technologies are always on the rise, movies are still among everyone’s favorite when it comes to means of entertainment.

The latest release that everyone seems to talk about is ‘The Last Jedi’ from the Star Wars franchise. Compared to its predecessors, this movie seems different, in a good way. Many critics have praised this movie for making an entrance into this industry. It looks like this piece of art features complex dynamics related especially to the gender subject.

The reason why ‘The Last Jedi’ could be called the most intellectual movie from the series is that it finally shows that women and men can work together and create something exceptional and unique. Although different sexes means that we’ll be seeing different military approaches, in the end, it’s all about respect and cohabitation.

Thanks to this bold approach, the movie shows women in strong leadership positions but also in a student position. There are no more gender or racial boundaries which is a positive thing given the current world we live in.

Typically, female heroes are either absent or showcased as individuals that don’t offer too much emotion on the screen. Because Star Wars is a worldwide phenomenon, it has the ability to choose to make a change.

The money made by this franchise is fabulous and we can’t stop to wonder when will this hype go away. You can purchase tons of items with the Star Wars logo such as coffee mugs, funny Star Wars gifts, T-shirts, and so on. So, this feminist trend will last for many years to come because true fans can seem to get over this story told for decades.

Viewers and movie critics noticed that this movie takes a leap of faith and goes from a simple action movie to something more sophisticated. Finally, we are able to see women working side by side, learning everything there is to know about the ways of the Force.

Even though the beloved Carrie Fisher passed away, the movie still has a certain sensibility and tone that makes it more gentle and clear more appealing to the female audience.

A tad more spiritual than older Star Wars movies, ‘The Last Jedi’ is basically a trailblazer for other actresses that want to play the woman in a command role. Plus, it’s great that we can admire smart and intelligent ladies that don’t act out of rivalry or tension. Instead, they let the grudges behind and work for a better outcome.